-(으)시 Honorific Infix
August 22, 2009 by tailieutienghan
This makes a standard verb (descriptive or action) 존댓말, honorific speech. It's not used necessarily only towards people who are in the conversation, but is used very widely in order to lift up (honor) the topic of the sentence, a person or group of people.
To make a verb honorific, take the verb stem, and add -시 or -(으)시. And this is now the honorific form of the verb in the dictionary form.
-시다 is used for verbs ending on vowels.
아프다 (apeuda) – to be hurt
아프 – verb stem
아프 + 시다 – verb stem + honorific infix
아프시 + conjugation
아프시 + 입니다 (verb stem + formal politeness level conjugation)
(으)시 is used with verb stems ending in consonants.
괜찮다 (gwenchanta) – to be ok, to be alright
괜찮 – verb stem
괜찮 + 으시 – verb stem + honorific infix
괜찮으시 + conjugation
괜찮으시 + 어요 – verb stem + standard politeness level conjugation)
(i jjok-euro oseyo.)
Please come this way.
Did you go to Korea?
My teacher is sick.
Note: The difference between honorifics and politeness levels: Politeness levels are verb conjugations used for the relationship between the speaker and the listener(s). Honorifics are words/infixes/conjugations/etc. that are used to respect the topic of the sentence (whomever the speaker is speaking of).
*** -시 + 어요 can become both 세요 and 셔요 – it was originally 셔요
but 세요 has become more common because it's easier to pronounce
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