-ㄴ/은데/-는데 Exclamatory Ending
August 25, 2009 by tailieutienghan
-ㄴ/은데/-는데 (-n/eunde/-neunde) is a grammatical structure which ends a sentence for several different purposes. This grammar note explains this structure's use for exclaiming exclamation, astonishment, surprise, or interest.
This structure is used to illicit a response from the listener, while at the same time expressing the speaker's own astonishment, exclamation, bewilderment, surprise or interest. It can be used in situations when the speaker is responding to something (a comment, an observation, etc.).
All structures can be made polite by adding the politeness particle -요 (-yo).
-ㄴ/은데 (-n/eunde) is used for descriptive verb stems and the copula, 이다 (ida), in the present tense.
-ㄴ데 (-nde) is used for descriptive verb stems ending in a vowel. It is also used with the copula 이다 (ida).
바쁘다 (bappeuda) – to be busy (descriptive verb)
바쁘 (bappeu) – verb stem (ending in vowel)
바쁘 + ㄴ데 = 바쁜데
내인 바쁜데! – I'm busy tomorrow! – (expressing exclamation) (implication: so I can't do it!).
이다 (ida) – to be (copula)
이 – verb stem
이 + ㄴ데 = 인데 (inde)
나 선생님인데! – I'm a teacher! (exclamation, “But I'm a teacher!”)
-은데 (-eunde) is used for descriptive verb stems ending in a consonant.
좋다 (jota) – to be good (descriptive verb)
좋 (joh) – verb stem (ending in consonant)
좋 + 은데 = 좋은데
좋은데! – It's good! – (expressing exclamation) – (implication: what do you think?)
-는데 is used for all other cases regardless of what the verb stem ends in (action verbs, past tense for both action and description verbs, other sentence ending)
먹다 (meokda) – to eat (action verb)
먹 (meok) – verb stem
먹 + 는데 = 먹는데!
한국음식 먹는데요! – I eat Korean food! – (expressing exclamation) (implication: So I can eat this!)
작았다 (jagatda) – to have been small (descriptive verb – past tense)
작았 (jagat) – past tense verb stem
작았 + 는데 = 작았는데
이 학교 더 작았는데! – This school was smaller! (expressing bewilderment) (implication: what happened to the school?)
note: here, although this is a descriptive verb, -는데 is used because it is in the past tense. -ㄴ/은데 is only used for descriptive verbs in the present tense.
1.한국이 참 좋은데!
Korea's quite good! (expressing delight)
2.저 사람이 프랑스어 하는데!
That person speaks French! (expressing interest)
3.내가 뭐 했는데!
What did I do?! (expressing exclamation – implication: so why are you yelling at me?)
4.어? 이 건물 아닌데!
Huh? It's not this building! (expressing bewilderment – implication: What happened to the building?)
5.와 그분이 멋있는데!
Wow… that person's cool! (expressing interest – implication: I wonder if he's single.)
-ㄴ/은데/-는데 (-n/eunde/-neunde) – This construction is also used as the introductory Non-Final ending.
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