-고 Reported Speech
August 25, 2009 by tailieutienghan
-고 (-go) is used in reported speech and acts as quotation marks. The statement of question that is being reported comes before -고 (-go). The sentence that is being reported is not taken verbatim, but takes different endings, according to the sentence type being reported. What follows after that is typically a speaking or listening verb.
(1)-고 말하다 – “said…”
(2)-고 하다 – “said…”
(3)-고 말씀하시다 – “said…” (honorific)
(4)-고 듣다 – “heard…”
(5)-고 묻다 – “asked”
The listening/speaking verb inflects the tense, mood, negation or politeness level.
The verb of the sentence being reported must generally takes a different form according to the sentence type being reported.
Reporting a Statement:
Intimate declarative form + 고 (Speaking/Listening Verb)
Statement: 학교 안 갔어요. (I didn't go to school)
Verb in declarative form: 갔다
학교 안 갔다 + 고 말하다.
학교 안 갔다고 말했어요.
(He) said (he) didn't go to school.
Reporting a Question:
Intimate interrogative form + 고 (Speaking/Listening Verb)
Question: 누구예요? (Who are you?)
Verb in intimate interrogative: 누구냐?
누구냐 + 고 묻다.
(She) asked who (I) am?
Reporting a Propositive
Intimate Propositive form + 고 (Speaking/Listening Verb)
Proposition: 라면 먹자. (Let's eat ramyun.)
Verb in intimate propositive: 먹자
먹자 + 고 하다.
라면 먹자고 해요.
(She) says lets eat ramyun.
Reporting an Imperative statement.
[-(으)라] Intimate Imperative statement + 고 (Speaking/Listening Verb)
Imperative: 식사 하세요! (Eat food!)
Verb in Intimate Imperative: 하라
하라 + 고 말하다
식사 하라고 말 합니다.
(He) says 'eat.'
(1)우리 엄마는 내가 예쁘다고 말했어. (My mother said that I am pretty.)
– 예쁘다 (pretty – intimate declarative) + -고 (Speaking/Listening Verb) – (말하다 – to say)
– 예쁘다고 말하다 (to say that (she) is pretty)
(2)지혜는 네가 아프다고 말했어. (Jihye said that you were sick.)
– 아프다 (sick – intimate declarative) + -고 (Speaking/Listening Verb) – (말하다 – to say)
– 아프다고 말하다 (to say that (you) are sick)
-하다 (-hada) is a shortened version of 말하다 (malhada).
(3)민수는 지금 공부한다고 했어. (Minsu said he\'s studying now.)
– 공부한다 (study – present tense of “to study”) + -고 하다 (to say)
– 공부한다고 하다 (to say that (he) studies)
(4)엄마가 부산에서는 어제 비가 왔다고 했어. (My mother said it rained yesterday in Busan.)
– 비가 왔다 (it rained – past tense declarative) + -고 하다 (to say)
– 비가 왔다고 하다 (to say that it rained)
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