명령형 Imperative (Standard/Intimate Politeness Level)
August 26, 2009 by tailieutienghan
One of the imperative conjugations of Korean verbs has the same set of conjugations as the simple present tense (in regards to the standard/intimate politeness level). We can conjugate verbs the same as the simple present tense, yet they have different usages, one of which is the imperative. Although we can conjugate these verbs in the same manner, they have a different function.
As stated above, the imperative is the same as the simple present tense in regards to the standard and informal politeness levels.
[Verb Stem] + [야/아/어]
- 하다 (hada)
[하] + [야] = 해
(ha) + (ya) = hae
- 가다 (gada)
[가] + [아] = 가
(ga) + (a) = ga
- 보다 (boda)
[보] + [아] = 봐
(bo) + (a) = bwa
- 쓰다 (sseuda)
[쓰] + [어] = 써
(sseu) + (eo) = sseo
The formal politeness level uses the conjugation: (으)십시오 (sipsio)
Verb Stem + (으)십시오
- 오다 (oda) “to come”
오 + (으)십시오
오십시오 “come” (imperative – formal politeness level)
Note: We can often find the written form (으)시오 on signs on the street, giving warning or directions to the public.
We can find the spoken version of this in many historical Korean dramas as well, however, its use is only relegated to written Korean in modern Korean.
- 빨리 밥 먹어.
ppalli bap meogeo.
“Hurry and eat.” (intimate)
- 집에 가세요.
“Please go home.” (standard)
- 물 마셔요.
“Drink water.” (standard)
- 문을 닫으십시오.
“Please, close the door.” (formal)
- 문을 닫으시오.
“Please, close the door.” (written)
This conjugation is the same as the simple present tense, only in regards to standard and intimate politeness levels. We do not use the formal politeness imperative often in casual spoken Korean, or even in formal situations. We generally reserve it for people of extreme importance (i.e., kings, queens, royalty, presidents, high-ranking military officials, etc.).
Imperative (positive) – Formal Politeness Level
Imperative (negative) – Formal/Standard/Intimate Politeness Levels
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