August 26, 2009 by tailieutienghan
When a subject is acted upon, the sentence must be in the passive. When a sentence is changed to passive, these passive verbs no longer require an object and become intransitive. Not all verbs have passive forms (하다 verbs, cognitive verbs 알다, 모르다, symmetrical verbs 만나다, 닮다, 싸우다, and generally speaking verbs that end with the vowel ㅣ).
The four different passive infixes: -이, -히, -기, -리
먹다 – 먹히다 – to be eaten
밀다 – 밀리다 – to be pushed
듣다 – 들리다 – to be heard
보다 – 보이다 – to be seen (also to show – same as causative)
끊다 – 끊기다 – to be cut off
★ General Rule ★
(1) ㅎ, ㄲ + 이다
(2) ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅂ,ㄼ + 히다
(3) ㅁ,ㅅ,ㅊ + 기다
(4) ㄹ + 리다
However, there are many exceptions.
1.듣다 ▶ 여보세요? 제 목소리 들려요? – Hello? Is my voice heard? (= Do you hear my voice?)
2.보다 ▶ 여기서는 안 보여요. – It is not seen from here. (= I can't see it from here.)
3.쓰다 ▶ 자주 쓰이는 표현 – expressions that are used often
The conjugation rules are there simply as a reference. But because of the large number of exceptions, KoreanClass101.com recommends the learner to memorize passive tense verbs.
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