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Archive for the ‘Korean Grammar’ Category

Korean is the national language of the independent countries of North and South Korea. The Korean language has many city and provincial dialects; the people of Seoul speak differently from those who speak the more provincial dialects of Daejeon and Gwangju. Learning Korean grammar can be a challenge, as its word order is much different than English, but there are many benefits to learning Korean–the least of which being that you’ll be able to communicate with 78 million people in two countries.

Step 1

-Decide whether you wish to learn on your own through self-study methods or with a tutor or as a student in a college classroom. In the meantime, purchase a Korean English dictionary (usually priced under $15) which is available online at major booksellers or at bookstores in your area. Start to familiarize yourself with Korean grammar.

Step 2

-If you’re interested in interactive learning, then peruse your local university’s course catalog to see if any Korean language courses are offered.

Step 3

If its a tutor you are interested in, a good place to find one is the university: international students are probably enrolled at your local college, and chances are there will be a Korean student who may provide quality tutoring services for a reasonable rate. The language department is often a good place to start. You could also post an ad for a tutor with an online classified market such as Craigslist, or go to a local Korean restaurant and ask the manager if he knows of anyone willing to tutor Korean.
Step 4
-Investigate your options. Depending on your budget and needs, an audio Korean language course may be helpful. Your needs will be different
if you’re planning a trip to Korea and just want to understand basic grammar rules so that you will be able to communicate effectively, or if you are interested in learning more complex grammar rules to speak and read fluently in Korean.

Step 5

-For getting around and understanding basic principles, try Pimsleur’s Basic Korean (about $16 on amazon.com in 2009). Pimsleur employs native speakers and uses a listen-and-repeat method, where no writing or reading are necessary. For more complex grammar and a step toward achieving fluency in Korean, try the software program Rosetta Stone’s Korean ($500).

Step 6

-Whatever method you try, practice as often as you can. Devote a half hour of study time each day to learning your new language, and you’ll be surprised at how quickly you pick up the concepts of Korean grammar.

Tips and Warnings

The Korean language is structured in verb-final order (meaning the verb typically comes last in the sentence). This makes the language similar to Japanese and Turkish, but not to English. In English, the sentence is subject verb object. For example: “Jody ate an apple.” In Korean, the sentence reads: “Jody apple ate.”

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위에 on top of

위에 (wi-e) means “on top of, over,” or “above.” This is a combination of two words: 위 (wi), meaning “up” or “above,” and 에 (e), which means “at, to,” or “in.” Therefore together, 위 + 에 (wi-e) has the meaning of “on top of (something).” The word that 위에 (wi-e) modifies comes before 위에 (wi-e). When we use 위에 (wi-e) on its own, it means “up there.”

 

Formation

For Example:
Noun + 
위에 = “on top of/over/above” + Noun

  1. 자동차 (jadongcha) “car”
    +
    위에 (wi-e) “on top of”
    Becomes –
    자동차 위에
    jadongcha wi-e
    “on top of the car” / “on the car”

Example Sentences

Korean

Romanized

“English”

책상 위에 있어.

Chaeksang wi-e isseo.

“It's on the table.”

책상 위에 놔.

Chaeksang wi-e nwa.

“Please put it on the table.”

책상 위에 없어.

Chaeksang wi-e eopseo.

“It's not on the table.”

위에 있어요.

Wi-e isseoyo.

“It's up there.”

거기 위에 봐.

Geogi wi-e bwa.

“Check up there.”

 



koreanclass101- Copy right by http://360korea.com

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We express the days of the week in Korean by adding the word 요일 (yoil) to the end of the letter that represents each day. The names are based on the Chinese characters that represent different things in nature.

Name

Chinese
Character

Meaning

Days

日 (il)

Sun

일요일 (iryoil)

月 (wol)

Moon

월요일 (woryoil)

火 (hwa)

Fire

화요일 (hwayoil)

水 (su)

Water

수요일 (suyoil)

木 (mok)

Tree

목요일 (mogyoil)

金 (geum)

Steel

금요일 (geumyoil)

土 (to)

Earth

토요일 (toyoil)

 

Notes

Sometimes, when referring to several days of the week, we only use the first letters.

For Example:

  1. 월화수 (wolhwasu)
    “Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday”
  2. 월수금 (wolsugeum)
    “Monday, Wednesday, Friday”

 



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씨 (ssi) is an honorific suffix, which is used to show respect. Generally speaking, when two people meet for the first time and are on an even keel, this suffix will be used. Whenever a title is not applicable [e.g. 사장님 (sajangnim), 선생님 (seonsaengnim), kinship terms], the honorific suffix is used. This should be used with people you meet for the first time. 

씨 (ssi) should be used only with given names, and not family names. When it is used only with family names, it can be rude.

Formation
[세례명] + [씨] 
[given name] + [ssi] 

or 

[성명 + 세례명] + [씨] 
[family name + given name] + [씨]

Example Sentences
1.사라 씨는 학생이세요? 
sara ssi-neun hakseng-iseyo? 
Are you a student sara? 

2.박준호 씨는 누구세요? 
bakjunho ssi-neun nuguseyo? 
Who is Park Junho? 

3.민지 씨… 전화해주세요. 
minji ssi… junhwahaejuseyo. 
Minji… Please call me.



koreanclass101- Copy right by http://360korea.com

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여기 (yeogi), 거기 (geogi), 저기 (jeogi) are place words, and correlate to the English “here,” “there,” and “over there.” 

여기 (yeogi) is equivalent to the English “here.” 

거기 (geogi) is roughly equivalent to the English “there.” 
This word implies that the location of conversation is far from the speaker, but close to the listener. 

저기 (jeogi) is roughly equivalent to the English “over there.” 
This word implies that the location of conversation is far from both the speaker and listener. 

These words function as nouns, and adjectives as well. 

Formation
These words can be used as nouns. 

1.여기는 한국입니다. 
(yeogi-neun hanguk-imnida) 
Here is Korea. 

If they are used in conjunction with the verbs 가다 (gada) – to go, or 오다 (oda) – to come, the direction particle or location particle, 에(서) [e(seo)], is attached to these words. 

여기 + 에 = yeogi-e 

1.여기에서 술 마셨어. 
(yeogi-eseo sul masyeosseo.) 
(I) drank here. 

2.저기에 갔어요. 
(jeogi-e gasseoyo.) 
(She) went over there.

Example Sentences
1.저도 거기에 갑니다. 
(jeo-do geogi-e gamnida) 
I am also going there. 

2.저기에는 지하철 역이 없습니다. 
(jeogi-e-neun jihacheol yeogi eopsseumnida) 
There is no subway station over there. (lit. Over there, there is no subway station). 
[location is far away from both speaker and listener] 

3.거기는 안 추워? 
(geogi-neun an chuwo?) 
Isn\'t it cold there? (lit. There, isn\'t it cold?) 
[location is far away from speaker, but close to the listener]

Related Expressions
이거, 그거, 저거 – Demonstrative Pronouns 
이-, 그-, 저- – Demonstrative Prefix



koreanclass101- Copy right by http://360korea.com

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Korean has two sets of numbers. The Sino-Korean number system is a number system which is derived from Chinese. These numbers are typically used for reciting phone numbers, time (minutes), months, years, counting money, and a number of other things. With the numbers one through ten, one can count till 99. 

일 (il) – 1 
이 (i) – 2 
삼 (sam) – 3 
사 (sa) – 4 
오 (o) – 5 
육 (yuk) – 6 
칠 (chil) – 7 
팔 (pal) – 8 
구 (gu) – 9 
십 (sip) – 10 
백 (baek) – 100 
천 (cheon) – 1,000 
만 (man) – 10,000 
억 (eok) – 10,000,000

Formation
With the numbers one through ten, one can count till 99. 

The number 11 is formed by saying the number 10 and then saying the number 1. 
10 – 십 (sip) 
1 – 일 (il) 
10 + 1 = 11 
sip + il = sip-il 

The number 12 is formed by saying the number 10 and then saying the number 2. 
10 – 십 (sip) 
2 – 이 (i) 
10 + 2 = 12 
sip + i = sip-i 

The number 20 is formed by saying the number 2 and then saying the number 10. 
2 – 이 (i) 
10 – 십 (sip) 
2 x 10 = 20 
i x sip = i-sip 

The number 24 is formed by saying the number 2, then 10, then 4. 
2 – 이 (i) 
10 – 십 (sip) 
4 – 사 (sa) 
2 x 10 + 4 = 24 
i x sip + sa = i-sip-sa 

For 100, the word 백 (baek) is used. 

The number 200 is formed by saying the number 2, then 100. 
2 – 이 (i) 
100 – 백 (baek) 
2 x 100 = 200 
i x baek = i-baek 

The number 349 is formed by saying the number 3, then 100, then 4, then 10, then 9. 
3- 삼 (sam) 
100 – 백 (baek) 
4 – 사 (sa) 
10 – 십 (sip) 
9 – 구 (gu) 
3×100 + 4×10 + 9 = 349 
(sam x baek) + (sa x sip) + gu = sam-baek-sa-sip-gu 

The number 3257 is formed by saying the number 3, then 1000, then 2, then 100, then 5, then 10, then 7. 
3×1000 + 2×100 + 5×10 + 7 = 3257 
(sam x cheon) + (i x baek) + (o x sip) + chil = sam-cheon-i-baek-o-sip-chil

Example Sentences
삼천원입니다! (sam-cheon-won-imnida!) – This is 3,000 won! 

저는 십오분 늦었어요. (jeo-neun sip-o-bun neujeosseoyo.) – I was late 15 minutes. 

나 일월에 뉴욕에 가. (na ilwor-e nyuyok-e ga.) – I'm going to New York in January.



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Native-Korean numbers are numbers that are, as the name suggests, natively Korean. Generally, these numbers are used when counting. These numbers can be used in the following contexts: reciting ones age, ordering food at a restaurant, seating people. 

Formation
The numbers 1 to 10 are as follows. 
하나, 둘, 셋, 넷, 다섯, 여섯, 일곱, 여덟, 아홉, 열 
hana, dul, set, nat, daseot, yeoseot, ilgop, yeodeolp, ahop, yeol 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 

Counting numbers 1 to 19 require the numbers 1 to 10. 
To form the number 11 simply take the number 10 (열) and then say the number 1 (하나) immediately afterwards. Numbers 12 – 19 follow the same pattern. 

The numbers 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 have their own words. 
스물, 서른, 마흔, 쉰, 예순, 일혼, 여든, 아혼 
seumul, seoreun, maheun, swin, yesun, ilhon, yeodeun, aheun 

To form the number 25, simply take the word for 20 (스물) and then say the number 5 (다섯) immediately after that. 
25 – 스물다섯 – seumul daseot 

The remaining numbers follow the same pattern. 

If there is something attached to the end of number 1 to 4, the numbers change slightly. 
The following are the changes that occur: 

하나 -> 한 
둘 -> 두 
셋 -> 세 
넷 -> 네 

Example: 
If we add the word for hour, 시 (si) to numbers 1 to 4, these numbers change. 
하나 (1) + 시 (hour) = 한 시 
둘 (2) + 시 (hour) = 두 시 
셋 (3) + 시 (hour) = 세 시 
넷 (4) + 시 (hour) = 네 시

Example Sentences
1.열두시에 도착합니다. 
yeoldu-si-e dochakhamnida. 
(I) am arriving at 12 o\'clock. 

2.열다섯명 입니다. 
yeodaseot-myeong imnida. 
We have 15 people. 

3.연세는 여든두입니다. 
yeonse-neun yeodeundu-imnida. 
(He\'s) 82 years old.

Notes
Generally speaking, when numbers get high (40 to 50), Korean speakers tend to use the Sino-Korean numbers. This is because Native-Korean numbers are used generally for counting, and there aren\'t many chances to count to such high numbers.



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